The oxide inclusions form a poor interface with the steel because they are hard and brittle. The effect of inclusions on fatigue resistance depends not only on the Case-carburized bearing The case for case carburized bearings in wind turbinesDec 19,2016 Effect of slag on oxide inclusions in carburized bearing#0183;The differences in the heat treatment process can have a large effect on bearing reliability.Two bearings that are almost identical in every respect,the details of the heat treatment process can have a huge impact on the reliability of the bearings.Case carburizedThe Origins of Oxide Inclusions : Total Materia ArticleOxide inclusions are usually classified into two categories,(depending on their origin) (i) as residual products resulting from intentionally added alloying elements for de-oxidation in the ladle and (ii) as reduction products resulting from reactions between the melt and the atmosphere,slag or refractory.Examples of the latter (often
effect of inclusions on functional properties can be obtained by tests of a single steel group.Monnot et al.showed that the machinability of bearing steels was improved at the expense of rotating bending fatigue performance .Similar balance of cutting tool life (machinability) and corrosion resistance Technical Report UDC 621 .746 .047 620 .192 .45 tion with slag and air,(3) oxide inclusions brought in from outside caused by the entrapment of slag in a ladle and a tundish,and mold powder.As the ultimate form of steel with utmost cleanliness,bear-ing steel 2,3) is quoted,and as the example of the case where inclu-sions are made harmless by reforming inclusion composition,steelsSubject Index - ASTM InternationalGears and bearings,carburized,61 Grease lubrication,121 H D Damage analysis,81 Damage from peeling Oxide inclusion,bearing steels,199,284 Oxygen content,284 Peeling damage,5 nonmetallic inclusions--effect on material behavior,211 Rolling contact fatigue life bearings
Electro slag remelting,187 carbon steel,Swedish standard SS 111116,254 inclusion elimination,161 steel oxygen content and fatigue properties,159 step-down test results,364 Fatigue 8620 309-size roller bearings,life dis Effect of slag on oxide inclusions in carburized bearing#173; tribution,13 bearing life,major advances,6 carbide effects,20-25 carburized steels,67 controlled fiber effects,25-28Steel Quality Requirements for Heavy Duty Off-Highway The bearing industry has long recognized that reducing the total number and size of large aluminum oxide inclusions proportionately increases contact fatigue life.Improved geometric accuracy and surface finish on heavy duty off-highway carburized gearing has increased the significance of oxide inclusions in nucleating contact and bending Some results are removed in response to a notice of local law requirement.For more information,please see here.Previous123456Next
investigated the effect of slag composition on inclusions in Ti-bearing stainless steel.26,27) Kim et al.26) investigated the formation of complex oxide inclusions in AlTi deoxidized 304 stainless steel.They concluded that reducing slag basic-ity (CaO/SiO 2) could avoid the formation of harmful inclu-sions with CaOTiO 2 crystallized Slag,Steel,Ladle and Non-metallic Inclusions Equilibria The harmful effects of non-metallic inclusions on fatigue properties of steel parts are because they can act as potential sites of stress concentration that can initiate cracks under cyclic loadings.Fig.1 presents the relation between fatigue life of ball bearing versus number of oxide inclusions larger than 30 Effect of slag on oxide inclusions in carburized bearing#181;m .Slag carry-over and the production of clean steeloxide) inclusions until the concentrations of FeO and MnO are near zero.Such sustained formation of fresh oxide inclusions tends to increase the total inclusion concentration in the steel a correlation was reported between the inclusion concentration and the sum (%FeO + %MnO) in ladle slag at the end of ladle treatment (Schwerdtfeger,1983).
Nov 01,2015 Effect of slag on oxide inclusions in carburized bearing#0183;Abstract Non-metallic inclusions in high-strength low-alloyed steel refined by slag with basicity ( B ) 25 and Al 2 O 3 content 20%30% (in mass percent) were investigated by slagmetal equilibrium experiments in laboratory and thermodynamic calculations.Most inclusions in equilibrium were quasi-spherical CaO-MgO-Al 2 O 3 -SiO 2 system and the sizes were less than 5 Effect of slag on oxide inclusions in carburized bearing#181;m.TheLONG-LIVED CARBURIZED BEARING STEEL - NIPPON STEEL3.A long-life carburizing bearing steel according to any of claims 1 or 2,wherein oxides contained in said steel satisfy the following formula as a number ratio (number of MgOAlitre 2 O 3 + number of MgO)/number of total oxide type inclusions 0.80.Inclusion Engineering - ScienceDirectJan 01,2014 Effect of slag on oxide inclusions in carburized bearing#0183;Special emphasis is set on deoxidation and its effect on oxides and sulfides.The text will start with a general treatment of the properties of different nonmetallic inclusions after which the effect of different metallurgical actions on the amount and composition of the oxide inclusions will be treated.1.7.2.Nonmetallic Inclusions in Steel
Industrial experimental and thermodynamic analyses were carried out to investigate the evolution of oxide inclusions from consumable electrode to droplet and refined ingot during electroslag remelting (ESR) of G20CrNi2Mo carburized bearing steel.All the oxide inclusions in electrode were CaOMgOAl 2 O 3,most of which compositions were INCLUSIONS IN CONTINUOUS CASTING OF STEELinclusions such as Al2O3 on their surface (Fig.10 right and Fig.11 right); - Exogenous inclusions act as heterogeneous nucleus sites for precipitation of new inclusions during their motion in molten steel (Fig.11 left); - Slag or reoxidation inclusions may react with the lining refractories or dislodged further material into steel.Effect of the Al2O3 Content in the Slag on the Remelting Effect of the Al 2O 3 Content in the Slag on the Remelting Behavior of a Bearing Steel Reinhold S.E.Schneider,* Manuel Molnar,Gerald Kl Effect of slag on oxide inclusions in carburized bearing#246;sch,Christopher Sch Effect of slag on oxide inclusions in carburized bearing#252;ller,and Josef Fasching 1.Introduction Bearing steels can be exposed to extreme service environments such as high contact pressure,high rotational speed,and/or ele-vated temperatures.
Effect of slag on oxide inclusions in carburized bearing#0183;Black oxide conversion coating offers many benefits and protection in numerous scenarios.In a situation where the interior of a turbine would experience moisture,conventional or non-coated bearings could be vulnerable to corrosion.Black oxide on the surface of components reduces the corrosive effect of moisture.Effect of slag control on steel process optimization and concerns the physical aspects related is the slag ability to capture the inclusions.In a simplified point of view,an evaluation of the feasibility of the passage of the oxide inclusions from liquid steel to slag has been studied.Viscosity and surface tension were used as reference slag physical.The reference temperature is 1650 Effect of slag on oxide inclusions in carburized bearing#176;C,theEffect of Slag Composition on [Mg],[Ca] Content in Molten In order to improve fatigue life of wheel steel,secondary-refining process is done with Al-deoxidation and slag of high basicity,high Al2O3 content and low oxidizing property.[M,[C content in molten steel would be influenced by slag composition.It is found that high basicity,high Al2O3 content and low oxidizing property is positive factor for proper [M,[C content in molten steel which
Rolling-contact fatigue life tests were studied to evaluate the effect of nonmetallic inclusions in bearing steels similar to AISI 52100.Fatigue tests were conducted on a test machine that was composed of a round disk specimen substituted for the housing washer of a thrust ball bearing.Effect of Electroslag Refining on Cleanness The cleanness,microstructure and mechanical properties of a newly developed CrNiMoWMnV ultrahigh-strength steel with and without electroslag refining (ESR) with 70% CaF2,15% Al2O3 and 15% CaO have been studied.This steel was designed and melted in an air induction furnace followed by refining using ESR.Cast ingots with and without ESR were forged at temperatures in the range 1100 -Effect of CaO/Al2O3 Ratio of Ladle Slag on Formation More recently,the modification of spinel to liquid oxide inclusions by slag-metal reactions has been reported without the direct addition of calcium.Kumar and Pistorious stud-ied the calcium transfer from slag to steel and determined its effect on the modification of alumina and spinel inclu-sions.
Apr 01,2012 Effect of slag on oxide inclusions in carburized bearing#0183;The melting points of boron-bearing compound oxide inclusions were calculated using Factsage software.The results showed that the main inclusion was a boron-bearing compound oxide and the deformation properties of the inclusions were clearly improved by adding B 2 O 3.As the boron content was increased from 0.0046% to 0.039%,the proportion Calcium Transfer to Oxide Inclusions in Al-Killed Steel In aluminum-killed steel covered with MgO-saturated slag (as is common in secondary metallurgy),alumina inclusions pick up magnesium,with simultaneous reduction of Al 2 O 3 from the inclusions.These reactions transform the inclusions from alumina to spinel (solid solution based on MgO.Al 2 O 3) and eventually to MgO. The source of magnesium is reduction of MgO from the slag.Behavior of phosphorus enrichment in dephosphorization Jan 07,2020 Effect of slag on oxide inclusions in carburized bearing#0183;Shi-jian Li,Guo-guang Cheng,Zhi-qi Miao,Lie Chen,and Xin-yan Jiang,Effect of slag on oxide inclusions in carburized bearing steel during industrial electroslag remelting,Int.J.
Ball-bearing steels are an outstanding example to discuss steel cleanliness as in this application the relation between cleanliness and fatigue properties has been clearly established .The total oxygen levels in ball-bearing steels produced at Ovako Steel Hofors (former SKF steel) via the acid open hearth process (1964) and later via an electric arc furnace and an ASEA-SKF ladle furnace